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Urban Protectionism Flourishes and Commerce Declines in Craft-Dominated European Cities; England Benefits

Craft Revolutions

In the large industrial towns of the Low Countries (i.e.Belgium and the Netherlands), on the banks of the Rhine and in Italy, municipal revolutions broke out.   622 more words

Henri Pirenne

Wool - the "Dutch Disease" of the Medieval English Economy

Up to the middle of the XIV century, England was an essentially agricultural country.  Except London, whose port had been largely frequented by continental merchants since the XI century, all the towns before the reign of Edward III were content to limit production to the needs of their own citizens and of the surrounding country.   253 more words

Henri Pirenne