Tags » Nephrology

Renal Stone Disease


  • Common (prevalence ~1.2%; lifetime risk around 7%)
  • There is a strong risk of recurrence (50% at 5-7 years)



Cystic diseases of the Kidney

NB Renal cysts are common, especially in older patients.  They are usually incidental findings and rarely require any management (they can occasionally cause pain and haematuria if they rupture) 279 more words


Chronic interstitial nephritis


  • Characterised by renal dysfunction. ¬†Chronic insult to the kidney causes fibrosis and infiltration of the renal parenchyma by lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages, causing tubular damage…
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Acute Interstitial Nephritis

Background / Epidemiology

  • Characterised by acute inflammation affecting the tubulo-interstitium of the kidney
  • Usually drug-induced (in particular- Penicillins; Cephalosporins; NSAIDs; PPIs; diuretics); but can be caused by other renal toxins and complicate other diseases/infections (e.g.
  • 159 more words

Henoch-Schonlein Purpura


  • Most common vasculitis in children, although can be found in all ages (75% of cases <10) (incidence ~10-20/100,000)
    • Younger children are less likely to have complications e.g.
  • 287 more words
Child Health

Urine- analysis

  • Casts originate from the nephrons
  • Hyaline casts are normal cast and have no attached significance.
  • Tamm-horse fall proteins are secreted by the epithelial cells of the loop of the Henle and they form the hyaline casts…
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Excretion! :) (NEPHROLOGY?)

This is the first topic we have covered in A2 Biology! Before starting on learning what the liver and the kidneys do, I initially thought that excretion was basically about ‘pooing.’ HAHA! 904 more words