Tags » OverEating

Day 47 of 180 – Trekking Up the Money Mountain

Action Tip:  Ask yourself, “Do I have some overindulgences or addictions that are costing me?” Overeating, cigarettes just to name a few?

What I’m asking is what overindulgences are you spending money on to ease the pain of dealing with a real issue? 22 more words

Living Below Means

食物與腦(上):舌尖以外,還有…

飲食的抉擇和進食量,跟味道有莫大關係,合口味會多吃,愛吃的食物在面前,食量難以自制,看過一輯BBC製作的電視節目,找來科學家揭開味之真相,了解什麼東西主宰我們品嚐食物的味道。

蘿蔔青菜各有所愛,兩個人吃同一食物有不同反應,差異來自舌尖。舌頭上味蕾主宰我們對味道的敏感度。數一下一個人的舌頭上有多少味蕾就知道他對味道有多敏感,數目越多,味覺越敏感。佛羅里達大學教授檢查一群測試對象的舌頭,舌上滿佈蕈狀乳突(Fugi Popella),至少每6毫米有5粒。有些人多到每6毫米有60粒,食物的味道感到強烈,可稱得上「味覺王」。大概15%測試對象屬於「味覺王」。

「味覺王」對任何味道的敏感度比其他人來得強烈,所以可能較厭惡濃烈的味道如酒精和煙,以及吃起來甘甘苦苦的蔬菜,因為吃起來苦味更濃。難怪有朋友每餐吃什麼都愛沾豉油,大有可能是這個原因,味蕾較少以致入口的餸菜總是偏淡。

我們辨別味道並非單靠舌頭,嗅覺亦豐富了食物的味道。當我們咀嚼食物時,釋出一種揮發物質,咀嚼及吞嚥時揮發物向上移,達到上颚後端及鼻腔,從鼻腔收集的氣味,稱為常規嗅覺;另外,從喉嚨和口腔感知的氣味叫鼻後嗅覺。所有訊息傳到腦部感應味道的區域,從而產生味道的感知。

憑舌頭可辨味五味:甜、酸、苦、咸、鮮,加上氣味,才嚐得出真正的味道。以下一宗真人真事,說明味道並非單純舌尖上的生理反應。

一位外國女廚師,遇上交通意外腦創傷後失去嗅覺,味覺雖然無損,嘗得出蘋果批的甜味,卻嗅不出香氣,所有食物變得淡而無味,常加入辣味添。一天當她切香草rosemary時,突然恢復嗅覺,當時她的腦海憶起童年時最愛留連的香草園。

味蕾加嗅覺只讓我們辨別味道,至於對味道的好惡,跟人的情感、記憶、經驗牢牢結合在一起。情感及記憶加深我們對味道的印象,而童年回憶的影響最深刻,兒時從食物得到的快感控制著我們日後對食物的喜惡度,細想一下,你最喜歡的食物是否童年愛吃的,多數也是母親製的家庭食品,不是嗎?

食物的喜惡是天生,也有後天因素形成。先天偏愛吃甜,嬰兒才愛吮味甜的奶,後天的愛惡始自/源於童年。

大學教授請來一批兒童接受測試,給他們食八種食物,當中有他們討厭的蔬菜,也有第一次吃的食物,然後要他們根據喜愛的味道依次排序。結果發現大部份兒童最愛吃甜味的食物,不愛苦味,例如味帶甘的椰菜仔,而且多數排名較前是曾經吃過的食物。

據研究員的仔細觀察,發現有些兒童表示以前不愛吃的食物,測試中再嚐感覺沒以前那麼差。儘管食物好惡是與生俱來,但亦會從經驗累積得來,需要時間及學習過程,若小孩討厭某種蔬果,只要持續給他們吃,會漸漸喜歡上。專家建議,給兒童試吃多樣化食物,從小時開始培養多元化味覺,可解決小童偏食的問題。

味道,是非常主觀、獨特的個人體驗,不能靠別人的感受器官代勞。口味難以一下子說改就改,所以要戒掉引起不良後果的偏食習慣並非易事。下周會講到,過量進食不利健康的食物,吃到不能自已背後也有複雜的原因。

身體解構

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