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Book review by Chen Shaoyan (陈绍燕) discussing the approach to Chinese intellectual history by the magazine "Literature, History and Philosophy" (文史哲)

《文史哲》与中国思想史研究

——读《儒学:历史、思想与信仰》

陈绍燕

来源:《中华读书报》2015年8月5日

For the original website please see here.

    中国思想史研究,尤其是中国哲学史研究一直是《文史哲》杂志一个重要的组成部分,这一方面的部分成果体现在《儒学:历史、思想与信仰》纪念专辑中。哲学是文化的核心。一个民族的哲学思想在民族文化的多层次体系中实居于主导地位。中国春秋战国时代是中国文化第一次繁荣发展的时代,诸子并起、百家争鸣,在哲学上最有影响的是儒、道、墨三家。儒家长于伦理,奠定了中华民族精神文明的基础。儒家思想是中国西汉中期至明清时代占统治地位的思想体系。“五四”运动前后和所谓“文化大革命”时期,有些论者认为儒家学说是一种阻碍社会进步的思想,予以全盘否定。1978年党中央拨乱反正,学术界恢复了正常的活动,科学地研究儒学、正确地评价儒学成为学界的主流。

《文史哲》杂志经常就学界的热点问题组织相关的笔谈。本专辑中选编了三次关于儒学研究的笔谈。“儒学是否宗教”笔谈发表了六位学者的文章。张岱年先生谈了他对该问题的看法。他说:孔子不语怪力乱神,言生而不言死,在这一意义上,孔子与其他宗教不同。然而,孔子提供人生必须遵循的为人之道,使人民有坚定的生活信念,在这一意义上孔子又具有宗教的功用。可以说孔学是一种以人道为主要内容,以人为终极关怀的宗教。儒学为人们提供了安身立命之道,儒家所追求的“仁者无忧”的生活境界,在一定意义上可以说超越了有神论的宗教。季羡林先生认为:从“儒学”到“儒教”有一个历史演变的过程。讨论该问题,必须有一个发展的观点。蔡尚思先生认为:儒学非宗教而起了宗教的作用。郭齐勇先生认为:儒学是一种入世的人文的又具有宗教品格的精神形态。张立文先生认为:儒学有着很深的天命论的宗教根基,又具有终极关怀和灵魂救济的内在超越的品格和功能,儒学自身已具备了精神化宗教(或称智慧型宗教)的性质。所谓“教化”之“教”与“宗教”之“教”的区分是人为的,因为任何体制化或精神化宗教都具有并一直在发挥着教化的作用。李申先生认为:“教化”之教即“宗教”之教。这组文章得到学界的广泛认同,被国内外许多报刊介绍、转载,对该问题的研究起到了重要的推动作用。

Bibliography

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